In 1949 Schlumberger transferred operations to Laškarī Bāzār in the south, thus beginning DAFA’s first large-scale study of Islamic ruins. In 1952 Schlumberger was diverted to Sorḵ Kōtal, north of the Hindu Kush, after roadbuilders had unearthed stone blocks inscribed with a form of Greek script. Finally site excavations began in the winter of 1950-51 during the second expedition of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) directed by W. Dales led work for the University of Pennsylvania’s University Museum (1968-71); and W. Pit burials of children were in association with domesticated goats. Excavations at this Kushan temple complex revealed the first concrete evidence for an indigenous Bactrian art and shed new light on the development of Gandharan art. Cardin) revealed the easternmost city of Greek culture yet known. Fairservis, when Šamšīr Ḡār and Deh Morāsī Ḡonday, 17 miles southwest of Qandahār, were investigated by L. This work provided the first Bronze Age data for the territory of Afghanistan. Trousdale explored for the Smithsonian Institution (1971-77). Ghirshman of DAFA investigated Tang-e Azāo, near Češt in Herat province (Frye, “An Epigraphical Journey in Afghanistan,” 1954, pp. Buddhological research attracted Japanese archeologists. The Kyoto University Scientific Mission to the Iranian Plateau and the Hindu Kush (S. C.: Open-air sites on terraces near a cave, Ḡār-e Gōsfand Morda, yielded flint implements. Ḡārlōlī, near Maymana; Fāryāb (AMNH, Dupree, 1969).
Other important research in the Islamic period has included K.
Fischer’s direction of a comprehensive project in Sīstān (1968-73) under the auspices of Bonn University.
Already in 1832 the Hungarian homeopath and gunpowder-maker in the Sikh service, M. C.: The site of a town mound was dated by carbon 14. Findings included a sculptured limestone head, painted goblets, clay humanoid and animal figurines, “mother goddess” figurines, pottery drains, stone and clay dibble weights and spindle whorls, flint microliths, diverse bone and copper implements, bronze mirrors and knives, and necklaces of semi-precious stones.
His maps and descriptions, particularly of the areas of Jalālābād and Hadda and of Bagrām, were pioneering contributions, although his “excavations” were unscientific (see his , Calcutta, 1841).
The following survey of major archeological sites is ordered by period of cultural climax.
The name of the site is followed by that of the Afghan province (when not evident), then by the mission or institution involved, the field director, and the date of the investigation. In 1957, following a preliminary survey the year before, G. Scerrato began excavations at the palace of Sultan Masʿūd III (492-508/1099-1115) in Ḡaznī. Surface collected flints included characteristic “microburins” (Afghanistan 25/4, 1972). A complex stone fortification of undetermined date sits on a hill above one of the obsidian sites (, ca. The finds from this excavation are on display in a 10th/16th-century mausoleum restored by Is MEO (A. Scientific exploration in Afghanistan began after September, 1922, when A. Foucher signed, on behalf of the French government, a diplomatic treaty with Afghanistan. Publications referred to are by the director, unless otherwise stated.