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Although the "Nestorian" label was initially a theological one, applied to followers of the Nestorian doctrine, it was soon applied to all associated East Syrian Rite churches with little regard for theological consideration.
From the 6th century it expanded greatly, establishing communities in India (the Saint Thomas Christians), among the Mongols in Central Asia, and in China, which became home to a thriving community under the Tang dynasty from the 7th to the 9th century.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the church experienced a final period of expansion under the Mongol Empire, where influential Nestorian Christians sat in the Mongol court.
Theologically, it adopted the dyophysite doctrine of Nestorianism, which emphasises the separateness of the divine and human natures of Jesus.
This doctrine and its namesake, Nestorius (386–451), mutually rejected the Council of Ephesus in 431, leading to the Nestorian Schism and a subsequent exodus of Nestorius' supporters to Sasanian Persia, which further forged the separation.
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was an Eastern Christian Church in the Persian Empire and other parts of Asia during the late antiquity period and throughout the middle ages.Its Schism of 1552 led to a series of internal divisions during the early modern period, and ultimately branched into the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East.The Ancient Church of the East and the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church also trace their roots to the Church of the East.During the patriarchal tenure of Shemon VII Ishoyahb (1539–58), a split occurred when Shimun Sulaqa was elected as rival patriarch and entered into full communion with the Catholic Church in 1552, receiving confirmation from the pope in 1553.After the Schism of 1552, the Church of the East became divided between two branches.For most of its history the church had six or so Interior Provinces in its heartland in northern Mesopotamia, southeastern Anatolia, and northwestern Iran and an increasing number of Exterior Provinces elsewhere.